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Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 20° 0' S, 175° 0' W
Coastline km: 419 km km
Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou. deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Currency: pa'anga (TOP)
Population: 116,921 (July 2007 est.)
Languages: Tongan, English
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